Sample Chapter – Evolution of Road Building Materials

The first roads developed from well used places like stream and river fords, mountain passes and other high traffic areas. From there these early roads most likely followed game trails and natural features of the land. Sometimes extensive networks developed which connected settlements for trade and travel, though they were little more than dirt paths in most cases. The predominant traffic on these early roads would have been foot traffic. Later on horses with travois and then wagons would have used them. Continue reading Sample Chapter – Evolution of Road Building Materials

Sample Chapter – Early Greek and Roman Railways

Early Greek and Roman Railways
First Railways
Archeological evidence indicates that the Greeks, and later the Romans, built paved trackways as early as 600 BC. These trackways consisted of grooves carved into limestone road beds that guided wooden wheeled vehicles along a path. Called the Diolkos, the trackway was about 5 miles long and allowed men to pull boats across the land using some type of wheeled vehicle. This provided a shortcut across the narrowest part of the Isthmus of Corinth. The shortcut gave boats a way to escape the arduous sea voyage around the Peloponnese peninsula. The Greeks used this trackway for about 700 years. The Romans also built similar trackways later on.
Mid-16th century (1550) –Hand-propelled mining tubs
Coal mine workers in the 1550’s used hand propelled mining tubs called hunds to transport the coal from the mine pit to the surface. These vehicles rolled on two wooden planks. A pin in the center of the tub that penetrated the gap between the two planks kept the tub going the right way. The Germans exported the technology to England. Continue reading Sample Chapter – Early Greek and Roman Railways

Sample Chapter – Ancient Gardens – Forest Gardens

The first efforts at gardening appeared in the equatorial regions of Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. No one knows when humans first started cultivating plants, however archeological evidence exists that suggests human first began choosing plants to grow to provide food around 45,000 years ago in forest gardens. These gardens were usually in tracts of land bordering rivers. A forest garden is still a forest, however it contains a large percentage of edible fruit species. Continue reading Sample Chapter – Ancient Gardens – Forest Gardens

A History of Time

Discover the fascinating history of time, clocks, calendars and time zones. Readers can learn about the Egyptian, Roman, Greek, Mayan calendars as well as timekeeping devices like sundials and hourglasses. A History of Time reveals the journal of the development of how humans keep track of time, including daylight saving time. Continue reading A History of Time